Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The greenhouse effect and ozone depletion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The greenhouse effect and ozone depletion - Essay Example However, due to the fact that the earth is cooler than the sun, the wavelength of the energy radiated back lies within the infrared region of the spectrum. Most of this thermal radiation is absorbed by the clouds and other parts in the atmosphere and is radiated again to the earth. This entire effect is termed as the greenhouse effect. Due to this effect, the temperature of the earth is maintained at levels which allow life to be possible, albeit this effect is useful, the use of human activities, majorly, the deforestation and the burning of the fossil fuels have led to an intensified green house effect. This has ultimately led to global warming (IPPC, 2007). The natural greenhouse effect involves certain greenhouse gases. These include, oxygen nitrogen, carbon dioxide etc. As a result of the natural greenhouse effect, the gases present in trace amounts within the atmosphere play a vital role in raising the temperature. This phenomenon is of immense concern since it leads to changes at sea level, changes in the weather (Myhre & Shindell, 2013). The greenhouse effect is not only caused by natural factors but also by anthropogenic sources. This human induced green house effect is mainly due to the energy sector which plays the role of the second largest contributor of emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases. This accounted for 26 percent of emissions in 2005 (Myhre & Shindell, 2013). Further, the coal mining activities, waste from home and businesses and agriculture accounts for the release of the greenhouse gas methane. This gas causes global warming through excessive greenhouse effect resulting in a climate change. These climate impacts are in relation with the rate of temperature rise while other impacts are related to the extent of temperature rise (EPA, 2015). It is believed that the levels of CO2 have increased by 38% while those of methane have increased by 148% since 2009. These gases aid in increased infrared energy emitted by the

Monday, October 28, 2019

Software Development Methodologies Analysis Information Technology Essay

Software Development Methodologies Analysis Information Technology Essay The report will be divided into sections, which describe the different stages of the project life cycle and provide information about the project scope, purpose and defines project objectives. Furthermore this report investigates the different software development methodologies and examines which one would be the best to use for the purpose of the final year project. Moreover the Summary and Critical Review of the project is provided with conclusions on, possible, future changes and improvements to the project. Finally the reports Appendix section includes all relevant diagrams, testing and coding and other information related to the project. Acknowledgments I would like to thank both of my project supervisors; Jon Bennett and Matthew Wake for their help and encouragement throughout this project. Furthermore I would like to thank Karren Burrows for her help on improving my database design and Mary Spence for guidance in the complicated world of VBA. In addition I would like to express my gratitude to Kevin Potterton, a friend and co-worker at Investmaster Group ltd. for providing helpful input, recommendations and moral support in difficulties with project management. Finally my boyfriend Andrew Steer for his patience, support and proof reading. Table of content Introduction The main aim of this project was to document and develop an Order Processing Scenario for a car rental company. The system stores customer and car details, car availability, calculates rental costs and fines, prints bills, and highlights unpaid transactions. This information will be available through a user friendly interface; with clear error messages. To accomplish this, knowledge acquired throughout the years at university was used to analyse and solve problems encountered during the project. Furthermore, the information required for the project was gathered and synthesised to provide a practical and high-quality end product that could actually be used in a real world situation. Additionally, research into different software development methodologies was completed and an appropriate development methodology selected. By using techniques and tools covered during the course the requirements for an order processing system were captured, including; different users and views of customers and clerks. What is more, using the research, self-learning and additional Visual Basic tutorials enabled the use of more sophisticated and advanced coding techniques. Finally, the system was tested by users with different levels of IT knowledge and was accepted for covering the relevant HCI criteria. (Appendix14) To develop and implement a fully functioning GUI front end for the above system. Problem definition. Currently, Aleks Car Rental is a small car renting company and all record maintenance within the company is carried out manually, on paper. Customer and reservation details are written down in log books and transactions are not backed up anywhere in case of any data loss and sensitive data is quite easily accessible; making the company susceptible to data theft. This way of working is not particularly effective because the paperwork is frequently lost or misplaced, which leads to the customers being unhappy with the service provided and complaints concerning the standard of data security. The aim of this project is to produce a cheap, automated solution that will enable safe storage of sensitive customer data. It should allow permitted users to check on; the availability of cars, customer accounts and to produce relevant reports. In addition to this, the system should be easy to use with clear instructions and messages as the users (clerks) have only basic IT knowledge. Objectives To select and follow an appropriate development methodology. To capture requirements for an order processing system including different users and views of customers and clerks. Investigate different software options. Design the order processing system. To include a variety of subsystems including the maintenance of customer information, car details, clerk details and the payment of fines. To identify a variety of users for system testing against relevant HCI criteria(Appendix15). Produce a prototype with basic functionality. Conduct an evaluation of the prototype. To develop and implement a fully functioning GUI front end for the above system. Basic Project Requirements 1) Acquire and analyse user requirements. 2) Develop a working system prototype with basic functionality specified by the user. 3) Design and implement a database for the system prototype. Possible Further Enhancements 1) Add administration section to the system. 2) Develop a fully functional order processing system 3) Investigate possible security problems Deliverables 1) Report 2) Working order processing system Project Schedule The duration of each task was controlled through the production of a Gantt chart; an outline of each key task was highlighted therein. This chart can be seen in Appendix B. Nevertheless it is not always possible to stick to the produced schedule, so the second, reviewed Gantt chart was created. This chart can be seen in Appendix B. It shows the actual start and completion tasks dates presented week by week, the tasks that were completed in the different time than expected are presented in blue. Appendix C Project Development Diary and Error: Reference source not found, highlights the problems encountered during the development and times when project was feeling behind the original schedule. The main reason for running behind the schedule was that the planed amount of time to learn VBA language was an optimistic prediction and the task was much more difficult than predicted. Another factor that had a big influence on delaying the project was sudden unavailability ot the project supervisor during to his health issues. This had place in January, and caused significant suspension of the database development as the supervisor was a project client and a main source of help in using VBA code. Furthermore, accommodating for deadlines in other modules, and obligations at work lead to further delays. However by working extensively during the weekends and bank holidays all of the project objectives were fulfilled on time. Project Management Scheduling the project stages had a massive influence on the development of time management skills. Successful time management helps to increase the person productivity and overall efficiency. Setting goals, prioritising them and monitoring its execution help to gain conscious control over the project and its separate stages. Developing these skill can seriously influence the person future ability to manage the projects in the work environment. One of the techniques useful when managing the project is the MoSCoW analysis (see Error: Reference source not found). It divides the tasks into different categories to enable the decision on which of them are the most and the least important. Tasks paced high in the hierarchy are the ones that had to be completed first, when the completion of tasks placed lower in the hierarchy of importance was optional. In cases where completion of the most important tasks was taking longer than expected the less important functions were completed earlier, to ensure that there are as many working functions as possible. Furthermore to ensure that all of the good project management practices are conducted during the final year project development, weekly meetings with Jon Bennett, supervisor, were carried out. During these meetings supervisor pointed out parts of the project that might take longer to complete and highlighted the areas requiring the biggest effort concentration. Unfortunately, because of the supervisors health problems meeting in the last few month of the project development were suspended but they were resumed with the new project supervisor although not with the same frequency. 2.Software Development Methodology Software Development Methodologies Analysis When developing a system it is crucial to choose a methodology that will fulfil all of the project requirements within the allocated timescale. A successful methodology is one that enables the developer to manage, evaluate and control the system throughout its life cycle. There is a wide range of different models, which differ in; the number of iterations of the project lifecycle, the intensity of user involvement in the project and the level of evaluation. Therefore, the decision on which methodology to use for a final year project might be a very difficult one and to succeed, the complete spectrum of requirements has to be taken into account and many techniques and tools have to be considered. Agile vs. Heavyweight Methodology Project development methodologies can be divided into two main types; agile and heavyweight. Both of these methodology types possess aspects useful for the purpose of the final year project but none of them could be fully used as a separate technique. In order to find the methodology that is most suitable for the project it would be recommended to combine some of their individual aspects together. Agile Methodology Using some of the agile methodology features can significantly limit the amount of documentation produced for the purpose of the project and assure that the project will be finished in the given amount of time. Furthermore, the agile approach concentrates on good design, technical excellence and simplicity, which are the main goals whilst working on the final year project. Another argument for using an agile methodology is that it can also be used for the purpose of small, self-organised teams or individuals, helping them to adapt to changing circumstances, which is often the case in projects such as these. Heavyweight Methodology Nevertheless, using some of the aspects of a heavyweight methodology should also be considered when developing an order processing system like Aleks Car Rental. Although heavyweight methods are mainly used by large teams for the purpose of developing large projects, some of the methodology tools and techniques could be also useful when developing student project. Following a heavyweight methodology helps to identify the different stages of the project and what lifecycle would be the best to follow for the purpose of the final year project. RAD (Rapid Application Development) One of the examples of an agile methodology is Rapid Application Development (RAD). Its main advantage is that the working systems are created within a short time period, which is very useful as the time frame for the student final year project is quite restricted. Furthermore, according to the RAD methodology the project needs to be frequently reviewed by the user as new functionalities are added during the development process. This is called iterative prototyping and should be applied to the students final year project development. User participation is very important in this process as it ensures that the developed system satisfies the end users requirements. Another aim of the RAD method is to reuse existing software components. Unfortunately as Aleks Car Rental order processing system needs to be created from scratch this aspect of RAD is not suitable for the purpose of this project. Another feature of RAD is the use of Computer Assisted Software Engineering (CASE) tools and techniques, which could be extremely useful to the developer in the project planning stages and all stages that follow the development of the system. These techniques should also be used in the development of the final year project. RAD questions the use of high-level documentation, like this report, as it is very time consuming, and, instead, concentrates on the low ceremony level such as system testing, training and implementation plans. For a diagram see Appendix D. Extreme programming Another example of the agile methodology is the Extreme Programming Method. Its success depends upon the level of customer satisfaction with the system. For customer satisfaction to be optimal, this method engages the client in constant communication so that user requirements can be catered for during the development lifecycle. This could be easily applied to the final year project as contact with the client (supervisor) should be persistent throughout the whole development process. By delivering the product in modules, over short timeframes, the Extreme Programming method concentrates on short term goals instead of delivering the full product over a much longer period. The complexity is added to the project sequentially, which means that individuals will be working on something new periodically. This would be the perfect path to follow when developing the final year project as short term goals could be delivered to the project supervisor on a weekly basis. What is more, Extreme Programming allows the developer to quickly respond to changes in customer requirements, which would be highly desirable for the unstable requirements of the final year project. Another feature of the Extreme Programming method is that it is mainly used for small to medium sized projects; such as a final year project. System Development Life Cycle Methodology (SDLC) A good example of a heavyweight methodology is the System Development Life Cycle Methodology (SDLC). This methodology is mainly modelled around the Waterfall Life Cycle which breaks the project structure into stages consisting distinct goals. It is good for projects with clearly specified requirements and a large time frame. A key feature of this model is that the process needs to stay free from any overlapping or duplication. To achieve that undertaken goals always have to be accomplished before proceeding from the one phase to the next one. There is very little possibility for the designers to go back and change any of the finished stages as this would dramatically slow down the whole development process. This methodology doesnt seem to be suitable for the purpose of developing the final year project. . For a diagram see Appendix D. Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM) Another heavy weight methodology example is Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method. It is the waterfall life cycle method which breaks the project structure into stages and rejects overlapping theses stages. Three major tools used by SSADM are Logical Data Modelling (Entity Relationship Diagram), Data Flow Modelling and Entity Event Modelling. The method combines all three techniques to enable the complete view of the developed system. Furthermore SSADM is structured from 5 complex hierarchies of stages: feasibility study, requirements analysis, requirement specification, logical system specification and physical design. As this methodology is a high ceremony method and it involves extensive planning and wide documentation, its elements should be used in a final year project to document the development process. Nevertheless SSADM doesnt really address the issue of changing requirement specifications and it doesnt allow any iteration after the project phase completion, so following this methodology rigorously might be really time consuming and not appropriate for the purpose of developing the final year project. User Centred Design methodology UCS could be described as a methodology that attempts to optimize the product around the user specifications. The main aim is to create a product that user can, want, or needs to use, rather than creating something that user will have to accommodate their behaviour around. To achieve that client has to be regularly updated with the project progress and consulted regards any changes. According to the methodology specifications there are several ways to gather required information from the users: focus groups, questionnaires, interviews, usability testing, card sorting and participatory design. Furthermore, although USC mainly replicates the waterfall life cycle method it is also focusing on its four key stages: Use Specification, Requirements Specification, Design and Evaluation. The stages are repeated until the projects usability scope is achieved. USC methodology uses many techniques that could be useful in the development of the final year project like use cases, scenarios and persona (customer for the purpose of Aleks car rental). Methodology used for this Project Time spent on the planning, documentation development and testing is often dependent on the chosen methodology and can increase or decrease accordingly to the used method. That is why, to meet the project objectives successfully the common practice is to combine different aspects of the different methodology types in the way they will suit the purpose of the students final year project. As the user (project supervisor) was consulted about the project requirements and progress on many occasions during the project development, it would indicate that aspects of Extreme Programming, UCD and RAD methodologies were used to full the project requirements. Also, using use cases, project scenario (Aleks car rental) and persona (client) taken from the UCD method made project goals easier to understand and fulfill. Furthermore, to design the order of the different stages in the project the waterfall life cycle technique was used, but as many iterations to the project throughout the different stages were made, and object oriented techniques and tools were used, this would indicate the aspects of SSADM and User Centered Design method were used in the final year project. Moreover Diagrams such as the Logical Data Model (Entity Relationship Diagram) and the Data Flow Model taken from SSADM were also used to establish the data flow in the system and what tables should be created in order for system to work as specified by the client. Additionally to confirm that all of the client requirement were covered the testing of the system was undertaken as it have place in RAD and UCD methodologies. To conclude, there is no one appropriate methodology for this project but many aspects of different methodologies combined together enabled to fulfil the requirements set by the project stakeholder. 3. Gathering Requirements 3.1 User Requirements For the purpose of this project the assumption was made that the person called system user will be the project proposer and initial project supervisor, Jon Bennett. To enable gathering of the most accurate requirements, two different data gathering methods were undertaken. Firstly, frequent consultations with the system user enable assembling essential system requirements and allows in depth research into user needs . Secondly investigation into current car hire solutions on the Internet was undertaken and features of the car renting company systems identified and reused if appropriate. 3.2Research Methods Two main research method types can be identified, quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative method is often used when the question is how many or how often. The most commonly used techniques are usually structured questionnaires and surveys. Further to that statistical data is produced and, in order to analyse and interpret the collected data, converted into charts and graphs. This method can be very time consuming and requires gathering large samples of data. As the final year project has a strict time frame and it is an individual task, quantitative method doesnt seem to be the right one to use. Second type of research methods is a text based qualitative method. In order to obtain the most accurate information, methods such as focus groups, interviews, observations, and case studies are used. The main data gathering method is to take a description of a problem from someone experiencing it or by observing the individual user. By using this method more in depth information is provided which will allow better understanding of user needs. The success of this method depends mostly on the researchers skills and should only be used if there are only a few cases to investigate. As the amount of stakeholders in the project is limited to one and it is possible to observe or interview the user, using qualitative method seems to be more suited for this project. 3.3Interviews Interview is a formal meeting and discussion with someone. Gathering information through an interview means evaluating the situation through the conversation with user. There are different kinds of interviews: structured, semi-structured, unstructured, group interviews and focus groups. In order to gather all necessary information about the required system functionalities regular weekly meetings with the user were taking place during a four month period. This is documented in appendix X. During these meetings functional and usability requirements were recognised and different methods on how to fulfil them were discussed. 3.4Functional Requirements Functional requirements indicates what actions should the system be able to do and what functions it should perform. Login Only permitted users should be able to login in to the system. Make Loan- Permitted users should be able to rent a car, and loan information should be stored in the system Add Customer- Permitted users (clerk) should be able to add new customer details. Edit Customer Permitted users (clerk) should be able to update/edit customer details. Find Customer Permitted users (clerk) should be able to find existing customer details. Delete Customer Permitted users (clerk) should be able to delete existing customer details. Add Car Permitted users (clerk) should be able to add new car details. Edit Car Permitted users (clerk) should be able to edit existing car details. Find Car Permitted users (clerk) should be able to find existing car details. Delete Car Permitted users (clerk) should be able to delete existing car details. Register car damages Permitted users (clerk) should be able to add any car damage details. Add Clerk Permitted users (manager) should be able to add new clerk details into the system. Edit Clerk details Permitted users (manager) should be able to edit clerk details in the system. Find Clerk Permitted users (manager) should be able to find clerk details in the system. Delete Clerk Permitted users (manager) should be able to delete clerk details from the system. Produce Reports Permitted users (manager) should be able to produce monthly and yearly income reports. Produce Loan Receipt Permitted users (clerk) should be able to produce client receipt with the loan details. Calculate Payment System should calculate the total payment for the loan. Calculate Fine System should automaticaly calculate fine for late returns. Notifying about overdue loans Permitted users (clerk) should be able to view details of the overdue loans. Close Option Use should be able to close all the forms. Cancel Option User should be able to cancel undertaken activity. Logout Option User should be able to logout from the system. 3.5 Usability Requirements Usability requirements measures how the software is suitable for its users, considering how easy it is to learn, how effective it is, how efficient it is, and user satisfaction. When designing a system there are ten usability principles that should be taken into consideration . Jakob Neilsenal. (2001). These 10 rules are outlined below with relevance to the order processing scenario Aleks car rental. Visibility of system status The user should be informed about any system status changes through the use of appropriate feedback e.g. When information in the system is updated a message box should be displayed informing the user whether this procedure has been successful or not. Appendix 16 Match between system and the real world Language used in the system should be appropriate and easy to understand by the user, egz meaningful error messages. Appendix17 User control and freedom -All possible activities undertaken by the user should be supported by the system (navigation). Consistency and standards To prevent any confusion the system the consistency of the interface should be kept throughout the whole system. It is reassured by using the same colours, fonts and format. Error prevention Any errors should be avoided when possible, where errors do occur, user should be clearly informed what has happened. Recognition rather than recall The interface should be informative enough for the user to understand how to navigate around the system in order to fulfil the undertaken action, egz. placing order. It should be clear to the user what they are required to do without recalling any information. Flexibility and efficiency of use The system should be designed for both experienced and inexperienced. Although the Aleks car rental system is easy and straight forward to use all of the users will be provided with user guide. Aesthetic and minimalist design Using only the basic graphics and presenting only the necessary information prevents user from getting distracted from the system. Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors When an error occures, the meaningful information should be displayed to indicate what coused the error and suggest how to resolve the problem. Appendix 17. Help and documentation -A user guide, listing clear steps on how to complete the tasks should be available. Appendix 18 3.6 Requirements gathered from available solutions This section of the report studies existing booking systems, available on-line or sold to car renting companies. See Appendix 18 for screen shots of these solutions. An investigation throuought existing booking systems was carried out in order to identify any reusable features that can be used for Aleks car rental System. Furthermore, undertaken research helped to recognise problems that should to be avoided. These are discussed below: General Usability: Usability is about design focused on helping customers perform tasks, with little effort and making the experience enjoyable. It is important from both the customers perspective as it is the means by which the user interacts; it should not lead to frustration. A well designed website interface is user friendly, simple, efficient, the functionality easy to learn and use in addition to providing effective interaction. Use of Multimedia: A range of high quality multimedia through color, sound, and graphics collaborated creates a powerful impression and generates interest, making the experience enjoyable. This sets a positive expectation for the rest of the website ultimately the customers choice of place to hire a vehicle. Use of multimedia should be kept to a minimal, with lot of white space and contrasting text. The average customers computer specification and bandwidth should be kept in mind thus it affects load up and response time. Search for Information: A customer likes a booking experience that enables them to find, select and pay for the service with ease. The solution to this is efficient navigation and search facilitation. A search function by keyword can help retrieve specific information; reducing frustration. Grouping meaningful data in a structured list should be applied as it minimizes confusion. Further subcategory help narrow down relevant information making it easier for customers to find what they are looking for. Online Order: The website should support secure online payment transactions, customers should be made aware of this, also other methods of payment options should be acceptable as customers are vulnerable to carrying out online payments. Status of reservation: It is important that the customer is updated with the status of the service once the reservation has been completed i.e. confirmation of the booking. 3.7 Safety Requirements There is a wide range of safety requirements to consider when designing a system, but as specifying them is outside the final year project scope only the basic ones will be covered. Backup when additional copies of the data are make. This could be done either by the user or automatically by the system. Backed data should not be stored anywhere within close proximity of the original system in case of a natural disaster such as fire or flood was to take place where the system is located. It is highly recommended that Aleks car rental company use a backup option to secured informations stored in the system. System stability testing to minimise system failure and possible data loss the thorough testing should be always performed on any new system. 3.8 Security Requirements Personal information stored in the system should only be accessible by authorised person. Password to prevent unauthorised individuals from accessing the data, system should always be protected with the password. Encryption protects information by making it unreadable to anyone except authorised person. This is use to protect the password when login in to the Aleks car rental. 4.Software and Hardware solutions 5.Car rental Company System Prototype In order to develop a fully working system student had to design and develop a working prototype of the booking system as a part of the project development lifecycle. See Appendix G for screen shots of the prototype system. Use Case Diagrams To gain an overall view of the system to be developed a diagram was drawn using UML (Unified Modelling Language). UML is used to show the interaction between the reservation system and the several actors/users. See Appendix H for a UML diagram. User Authentication As the system is designed to stored potentially sensitive data the user identification must be in place.<

Friday, October 25, 2019

Variations of the Ankle Slasher :: Personal Narrative Urban Legends Essays

Variations of the Ankle Slasher As I was growing up I remember my mom warning me about guys hiding underneath cars and cutting the back of the ankles to steal your car. She told me this so convincingly that I thought it just had to be true. I mean, why would anyone make something up like that. I have since learned that this was meant to scare me, and to help make me more aware of my surroundings. It made such an impression on me that to this day as I walk up to my car I pay attention to what is under it. I even find myself looking in the back seat as I unlock the door. I am not even aware that I do it until I get into my car and lock the doors. Through studying Urban Legends in class, I have become very interested in them. For this field report I decided to take this Urban Legend to see if there was anyone else who heard it, and to see if it was being passed on or if was just my deviant mother. My research consisted of two interviews. I interviewed a few of my friends that go to Indiana University and asked them if they would help me with my research. They agreed to an interview. With the interviews I compared variants of a single Urban Legend. I wanted to see how each individual. s story differed, even though they were the same story. This is what makes an Urban Legend. I asked two people about the Urban Legend, The Ankle Slasher. I asked them if they were familiar with the legend. I also asked whom they had heard it from and when. Then I asked them to tell me the story. After they told me their version of the story, I asked if they had heard another version from anyone else. The first person I interviewed was Brian. He told me how he was familiar with the legend, though he can. t remember whom he heard it from. He also told me the version he has heard. He began by telling me how guys hide under cars in a mall, and then when the owners come out they would cut the ankles, around the Achilles. tendon. Then the guys would steal their packages and the car. He also explained to me when he heard this legend. Variations of the Ankle Slasher :: Personal Narrative Urban Legends Essays Variations of the Ankle Slasher As I was growing up I remember my mom warning me about guys hiding underneath cars and cutting the back of the ankles to steal your car. She told me this so convincingly that I thought it just had to be true. I mean, why would anyone make something up like that. I have since learned that this was meant to scare me, and to help make me more aware of my surroundings. It made such an impression on me that to this day as I walk up to my car I pay attention to what is under it. I even find myself looking in the back seat as I unlock the door. I am not even aware that I do it until I get into my car and lock the doors. Through studying Urban Legends in class, I have become very interested in them. For this field report I decided to take this Urban Legend to see if there was anyone else who heard it, and to see if it was being passed on or if was just my deviant mother. My research consisted of two interviews. I interviewed a few of my friends that go to Indiana University and asked them if they would help me with my research. They agreed to an interview. With the interviews I compared variants of a single Urban Legend. I wanted to see how each individual. s story differed, even though they were the same story. This is what makes an Urban Legend. I asked two people about the Urban Legend, The Ankle Slasher. I asked them if they were familiar with the legend. I also asked whom they had heard it from and when. Then I asked them to tell me the story. After they told me their version of the story, I asked if they had heard another version from anyone else. The first person I interviewed was Brian. He told me how he was familiar with the legend, though he can. t remember whom he heard it from. He also told me the version he has heard. He began by telling me how guys hide under cars in a mall, and then when the owners come out they would cut the ankles, around the Achilles. tendon. Then the guys would steal their packages and the car. He also explained to me when he heard this legend.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Disconcerting Behaviour in The Wasp Factory and A Streetcar Named Desire Essay

‘Compare the ways writers’ present disconcerting behaviour in both texts so far.’ The following will elucidate how disturbing behaviour is conveyed in the novel The Wasp Factory by Iain Banks and the play, A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams. In A Streetcar Named Desire, the theme of violence is very frequent in the character Stanley Kowalski. Stanley is a married, young man, who comes across to the reader as quite an enraged person with animalistic attributes. A prime insinuation of Stanley’s difference to regular humans is when Stella DuBois (Stanley’s wife) explains to her sister that Stanley is of â€Å"a different species†, foreshadowing that Williams may be warning the reader that Stanley is capable of things that are not in the norm. Additionally, his manner of walking is often described as â€Å"stalks†, which is commonly used to describe animals, such as smilodons and cheetahs and both of which are quite vicious, uncontrollable creatures. Further animalistic gestures performed by Stanley include â€Å"jerks out an armful of dresses† and â€Å"jerks open a small drawer†, not to mention the fact that he â€Å"kicks the trunk†. In excess of these being certain exemplifications of Stanley’s brutal attitude, they also indicate Stanley’s lack of self-control, which once again is similar to an animal trait, as animals are liable to be quite ruthless and don’t think abou t their actions before they carry it out. Furthermore, the fact that Stanley is acting quite rudely towards his sister-in-law and a just-arrived guest fortifies the belief that he is uncaring and confounding towards new people, thus makes him even more animal-like, since most animals dislike people or things that are new to them. Inasmuch, the above is a distinctive example of disconcerting behaviour, particularly because Stanley is an adult and adults tend to be very responsible people, however in the above case mentioned Stanley is not as he is behaving rather irresponsibly. Playwright Tennessee Williams suffered a very brutal childhood filled with abuse and mistreat. The actions of Stanley are highly significant as they reflect on and are analogous to Williams’ father, who physically abused Tennessee Williams callously when he was child up to his teenage years. Williams himself claimed that A Streetcar Named Desire was â€Å"Everything I had to say†, which goes to show the significance of the playwright’s life on A Streetcar Named Desire. Another major indication of Stanley’s violence is when he â€Å"gives a loud whack of his hand on her (referring to Stella) thigh† and gives her a rough beating when Stella tries to calm Stanley down from being abrasive towards Blanche, which is relatively disconcerting, since Stella is pregnant; hence she is in need of comfort, love and support. In opposed to Stanley giving Stella moral support and his duty as a husband to protect his pregnant wife, Stanley seems to think it is okay to hurt her, which is fundamentally wrong and very disturbing. On the other hand, the above mentioned phase of the play reinforces the fact that there was much male dominance in the early 1900s. Stella is also portrayed as one of the weaknesses than the strengths of civilisation in her acceptance of a husband who gives her satisfaction of physical desire. Critic, Nancy Tischner suggests â€Å"apparently Williams wants the audience to believe that Stella is wrong in loving Stanley, but right in living with him.† Personally, I agree with Tischner, simply because it was explicit that the 1900s was a patriarchal society. Women were inferior to men and were represented mostly through their husbands; consequently they were submissive and dependent on their husbands, because they needed a place to live and food to eat. The message of male ascendancy is articulated in a conversation between Stanley and Stella in which Stella asks her husband for money so she could buy her sister dinner, because she knows she hasn’t any money herself: â€Å"†¦you’d better give me some money† (scene II), which emphasizes that wives were reliant on their husbands for support, even if they weren’t entirely happy in their relationship. Another indication of Stella’s dependence in Stanley is when she claimed that she â€Å"can’t stand when he (Stanley) is away for a night †¦ I cry on his lap like a baby.† Although this highlights that Stella is highly dependent on Stanley, we cannot ignore the fact that she loves him too. Similar to Stanley Kowalski, the protagonist of The Wasp Factory, Frank Cauldhame also behaves violently; however in Frank’s case violence is directed mostly towards animals as he is aware of his superiority to them, just as Stanley is aware he is superior to his wife. The reader follows account of how Frank fills his long, solitary summer victimising animals such as rabbits, as well as killing wasps on a daily basis. Frank’s annihilation of rabbits on the island is a crucial example of how violence is a conventional part of his life – as if he’s accepted that killing and deliberately hurting things will always be normal to him. Frank â€Å"throttled the rabbit, swinging it in front of him †¦ its neck held on the thin black line of rubber tubing†. It is highly disturbing how a 16-year old is comfortable in inflicting pain on innocent creatures, not to mention killing them as well as finding it rather amusing, as he claims â€Å"I felt good† after his genocidal of the rabbits. Moreover, Frank does not undergo any remorse after he has committed these harsh doings, because after he killed a cute little bunny he â€Å"kicked it into the water.† Despite Stanley being violent towards his inferior (Stella), Frank’s violence is slightly different in comparison to Stanley, as Stanley definitely displays contriteness and guilt after he attacks Stella, whereas Frank demonstrates no pity whatsoever, which accentuates Frank is hysterically riotous, accordingly a person who constantly carries out disconcerting behaviour. A point that must be noted in A Streetcar Named Desire is my belief that Blanche DuBoi’s insecurity could be seen as a form of disconcerting behaviour. Blanche is constantly fishing for compliments from Stella, which may not seem disturbing at first at all, as most people like to be complimented on their beauty, however, when Stella asks Stanley to â€Å"admire her dress and tell her she’s looking wonderful. That’s important with Blanche. Her little weakness†, we begin to question whether Blanche is totally obsessed with herself and her image. The fact that Stella claims â€Å"looks† are Blanche’s â€Å"weakness† strengthens the belief that Blanche is insecure – especially because this judgement is made from her sister who is very close to Blanche. Her insecurity highlights the belief that Blanche is a very disturbed person and we can make an assumption that an incident in the past has caused this anxiety in her. In addition, when Blanche declares she still has vanity about her beauty, she looks over at her sister Stella â€Å"for reassurance†. We can deduce from Blanche’s final look at Stella to assure she still looks pretty that Blanche definitely self-doubts her appearance and is thinks it’s critical about what people think of her; which further reinforces she is a very unsettled person – perhaps the opposite of Stella, as Stella already has her own husband, home and happiness of a new addition to the family to look forward to. Furthermore, when Blanche exclaims: â€Å"Turn that over-light off! Turn that off! I won’t be looked at in this merciless glare† I find it slightly disconcerting, as she makes such a big deal out of her looks as though it’s gold dust for her and if a speck of it is ruined, then so be herself. The fact that she requests that she would like the light to be off can deduce that Blanche does not want to display her true reality and perhaps she is hiding something. Also the fact that she is older than Stella and has more experience in life, despite this, Stella seems to have a more mature outlook on life than Blanche. A review by a man named Benjamin Nelson theorises that â€Å"Blanche’s inability to tragically mature is a result of her incompletion and fragmentation†. What Nelson is saying is that people are responsible for their own doings provided their current situation has been truly stimulated. Then, and only then, can a classic tragic character evolve, similarly, Blanche finds herself in a situation which is completely different to how she was perhaps living before and has to keep an eye on how she is displaying her self-image to others. The reader is aware that Blanche is not an entirely honest person, as she lies to herself and others about her drinking habits as she begins with telling her sister that (drink-wise) one is her limit. The fact that the first practical task Blanche carries out in Stella’s home is â€Å"she springs up and crosses to it, and removes a whiskey bottle.†, underlines that drinking may be a usual thing is her life, so why does she attempt to hide it all the time? The answer to this of course is so she comes across as socially desirable to new people and especially in Mitch’s case, sexually admirable. When Mitch is around, Blanche stands near the light when the curtain is drawn, as to show her body to Mitch, supposedly for her sense of self-esteem, which means that she has often succumbed to passion. Nevertheless, throughout the play, Blanche avoids appearing in direct, bright light, particularly in front of Mitch. This implies that Blanche perchance looks to Mitch as a future partner. She also refuses to reveal her age, and it is clear that she avoids light in order to prevent him from seeing the reality of her fading beauty. This fits in with the analogy that Blanche can be seen as moth, as moths avoid because they can’t stand it. In addition to this theory, moths are usually very irritating creatures and tend to cause havoc wherever they go, such as nibbling on clothes and entering rooms without permission. Blanche too has a moth-like persona as she seems to be interference in Stanley and Stella’s love life, as from the moment she has arrived, the couple had an argument immediately. Stanley’s perception of Blanche is that she is a nuisance and doesn’t like the fact that she is staying in his home: â€Å"What do you think you are? A pair of queens?†, which implies that Blanche is behaving too badly for Stanley’s liking. Initially, Tennessee Williams was going to name this play ‘The Moth’, simply because Blanche is such an essential persona in A Streetcar Named Desire. Just as Ms Blanche DuBois is apprehensive about her appearance and quite uncomfortable in her skin, so is Mr Frank Cauldhame in The Wasp Factory. Due to the ‘accident’ Frank apparently faced as a child in which his male genitalia was bitten off by a dog, it is obvious that he isn’t satisfied with his image. Frank wants to be looked at as frightening to people and even stated: â€Å"Looking at me, you’d never guess I’d killed three people†, as though it’s something people should know and as though he is proud of what he did. He says he â€Å"wants to look dark and menacing †¦ the way I might have looked if I hadn’t had my little accident.† This sustains the belief that Frank feels highly uncomfortable with his looks mainly due to the accident. Killing is a very violent act, stereotypically associated with the male gender in which Frank is so desperately trying to conform into. However, he finds it rather hard and feels insecure about his masculinity due to his ‘accident’, therefore resorts to great lengths such as killing people and animals as a method of defining and assuring himself he is a boy. This is slightly similar to Blanche, as Blanche resorts to lying to paint a portrait of how she desires to be looked out, nonetheless, different because Blanche is not so extreme to the point that she harms people like Frank. Undoubtedly, I find Frank’s killings to emphasize on his masculinity rather pathetic and extremely disconcerting, since he is a teenager and almost seventeen years of age, as a result he should be more than aware of what is right and what is wrong and killing is indeed wrong. On the other hand, I do feel a little sympathy for Frank as he is very isolated and his father refused to allow Frank to officially exist in society, thence he may not have entirely been taught what is morally right and what is morally wrong by his father – especially since his mother is dead and he has no other mother figure in life to guide him. Other than Frank committing overly masculine acts to demonstrate that he is definitely a boy, Frank envisions himself as someone that is strong and powerful and is upset with his appearance as he laments the fact that he is â€Å"chubby†. This is very similar to Blanche, as she too comments on how slender her figure has remained over the years and for reassurance glances at her sister. To conclude, I would like to say that disconcerting behaviour is common in both texts and there are various similarities, as well as differences in phases of both the play and the novel.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019


From the ginning of the story, it was already manifested how friendship and love became the foundation fifths novel, due to Fern's love for Wilbur he was saved from the hands of Mr.. Arable who intends to take the life of Wilbur. Despite Fern being only a little girl, she thought of Wilbur as her own child, whom he cared for and love so much. Aside from this, one of the greatest proofs of how important friendship is was depicted between Charlotte and Wilbur. Without Charlotte help, Wilbur would be butchered in the slaughterhouse.In addition, it is exhibited in the story, that even though Charlotte life was nearing its end, she still thought of helping Wilbur, together with Templeton, in the fair to provide moral support for her friend. Although Charlotte passed away in the end, her life became more meaningful and happier by helping Wilbur. Wilbur was not only saved from being killed, but what Charlotte woven words did was more than that, she proved to Wilbur that he is important and that he is loved which I believe is the best feeling anyone could experience.Lastly, before Charlotte die she entrusted her egg sac to Wilbur since she cannot make it back to the barn anymore, and s a loyal and grateful friend, Wilbur not only took the egg sac back to the barn but even cared for the three spiders who were left behind and their succeeding eggs. Setting This story took place in rural America at the Seersucker's barn. The story involved many seasons, although Wilbur was called a spring pig meaning he was born during springtime, most of the story happened during summer and fall. The barn was old yet very large as described in the story.This barn feels very welcoming and comforting as it smelled mostly of hay. Wilbur new home was at the lower part Of the barn, beneath the cows. Since according to Mr.. Seersucker's viewpoint, manure pile is great for pigs as they need mud to keep them warm and comfortable. Characters Wilbur – He is the main character in the book Ch arlotte Web. He is born as a runt of his litter, which caused Mr.. Arable to kill him. Fortunately, he was saved by Fern's love for him. He is very sensitive and vulnerable, yet, with the love from his friends, he was able to live life again better than before.Most of the times he feels insecure and emotional but with his friend Charlotte, he was able to move on to this and gain a little faith in himself. He undergo life's as and downs but with his friends, especially Charlotte, he was able to surpass it all and be happy in the process. He is forever thankful for Charlotte?s love and as a form of showing gratitude for this he looks after her kids. Charlotte A. Cavity – She is a barn spider who lives above Wilbur pigpen, and often portrayed as a heroine of the story. She is cool, collected, practical, talented, clever and loyal to her friends.She played an important part in Wilbur life, often perceived as a mother of Wilbur. She gave all her best effort even in her last day ju st to save Wilbur life and show people who Wilbur really is. Mr.. John Arable – He is Fern's father, who wants to kill Wilbur at first but due to Fern's objections, he spared Wilbur life. He let Fern take care of Wilbur but greatly stand with his decision to sell Wilbur at five weeks old. He is a practical man but at the same time loving especially when it comes to his daughter.Fern Arable – She is an affectionate little girl who saved Wilbur life from an untimely death and the only human being who can understand what animals say. She became a mother to Wilbur until it was time to sell him to his uncle. Despite this, she still visits Wilbur a lot and even kittens to the stories of barn animals. As, the story progresses, she grew up and moved away from the barn where she became more interested with Henry Fussy than Wilbur. Avery Arable – He is Fern's elder brother who is boisterous, aggressive, adventurous and carefree. Unlike Fern, he often wants to kill animals and rule nature.He is also a performer, somewhat like a clown at some point, and works hard in the story. Mrs.. Arable – She is the mother of Fern who at most times is overreacting especially when it comes to her daughter. She is very worried on how Fern thinks that animals can talk and hat most of her time is spent with the animals in the barn. She always try to push Fern to mingle with persons of his own age rather than visiting the barn. Mr.. Homer Ackerman – He is Avery and Fern's uncle and the proprietor of the farm near Rabble's residence. He raises animals for a living. Moreover, he bought Wilbur for six dollars from Fern.He is the saw and believed the words woven by Charlotte about Wilbur and decided not to take him to the slaughterhouse. He benefited from this, since Wilbur became famous and in return he cared more than ever for his animals. He entered Wilbur at a intention in the fair and won twenty-five dollars when Wilbur was granted with a special award. Mrs.. Edith Ackerman – He is the wife of Homer Ackerman who spends her time mostly in the kitchen. She is also the only person who thought that the spider, Charlotte, is the one who is truly amazing than the pig, Wilbur, described by the woven words.Luray – He works at Ackerman who also depicted what a very industrious person truly is. He was the first to see the web of Charlotte and when Wilbur became famous, he then took care of him extra carefully. He is very sensitive with Wilbur especially he does not eat his food. Dry. Dorian -? He is the family doctor of the Rabble's family. He told Mrs.. Arable that Fern might really hear animals talk because there are a lot of things that could not be explained by Science. He even attributed Charlotte web as one of the proofs of how wondrous the nature is. Minister – He is the first person to whom Mr..Ackerman shared the story regarding the writings in the web. He did not really believe him and even thought of Mr.. Acke rman as unusual. Henry Fussy – He is not really a very active character in the story' but was described s one to whom Fern is very fondled of. Templeton -? He is a rat that lives in Wilbur trough. He is portrayed as rather selfish who is also a glutton. Moreover, he would only help Charlotte and Wilbur when they would offer food in return. Nevertheless, he played an important role in finding words to describe Wilbur and in retrieving Charlotte egg sac.Lamb – He is an insensitive Lamb who refused to play with Wilbur and continued to humiliate him by belittling Wilbur saying that pigs mean less than nothing to him. Goose – He likes to tell Wilbur what he should do which most often sends Wilbur into ruble. She is a great mother to her kids and suspicious of the intents of Templeton, so she never lets him near her young ones. Gander – He is the partner of Goose, who like her is also protective of his children. He is brave and strong but quite into violence wh en it comes to Templeton and his goslings. Uncle – He is the large spring pig who competed with Wilbur in the County Fair. He also received a medal for his big size. Joy, Arena and Nellie – They are some of the children Of Charlotte from its egg sac. These spiders are the ones that stay with Wilbur on the barn and became friends with him. Lot Exposition: A new litter of piglets is born on Mr.. Rabble's farm, however one of them is a runt which is deemed to small and weak to be kept on a farm. Fern, the daughter of Mr.. Arable, pleads his father to let the pig live and let her keep it as a pet. Mr..Arable, who loves her daughter so much, gave in to the wish of his daughter and spared the pig. Fern was able to keep his pet, which she named Wilbur, for a few weeks until it was sold to his uncle, Mr.. Homer Ackerman, for six dollars. Rising Action: Although Wilbur felt lonely upon leaving Fern, he soon adjusted in the farm ND made some friends, especially Charlotte whom he mostly depends on. Fern, despite selling Wilbur to his uncle, still cares for the pig and visits him often. Fern, like Wilbur, also made some friends and even listens to their stories.Wilbur became very happy and carefree. He was constantly taken care of and fed slops that he wanted. Until, one day, he received a news. Climax: The lamb then tells Wilbur that Mr.. Ackerman is fattening him up for Christmas dinner. Much to Wilbur dismay, he will soon be brought to the slaughterhouse. This news cause distraught to Wilbur who is already so pappy in the barn and does not want to end up killed for Christmas. Falling Action: Charlotte then assured that she, together with some of their friends, will do anything to save Wilbur.She then weave words into her web, describing Wilbur greatest qualities and praises to him such as â€Å"SOME PIG! ,† ‘TERRIFIC,† â€Å"RADIANT' and so on. This gained attention from people all over the county, which made Mr.. Ackerman rethink of w hether Wilbur should still be brought to the slaughterhouse. Mr.. Ackerman then promised that if Wilbur wins the blue ribbon in the County Fair, he would never be turned into a ham for Christmas. Charlotte became worn out due to this work but still decided to go to the County Fair and help Wilbur win the contest.She then weaves the last word for Wilbur and then goes to work on her egg sac which will hold over five hundred eggs. Resolution: Wilbur anxiously waited to see who won the prize. Unfortunately, his rival, uncle, won the blue ribbon for being the biggest pig. But to everyone's surprise, Wilbur received a special prize for being a terrific and radiant pig! Unfortunately, Charlotte reached the end of her life span and was not able to be with Wilbur after his triumph nor see her children grow. As a sign of irritated for everything that Charlotte did for Wilbur, he vowed to take care of her children.To honor Charlotte, Wilbur hangs his medal on the nail in the doorway where Char lotte web used to be. When the egg sac hatched, most of the new born spiders flew away to find their own homes, but three of them, Joy, Arena and Nellie, stayed on the barn with Wilbur. Wilbur became good friends with them, much to his delight. Year after year new spiders are born to replace the old one but no one was able to match and replace Charlotte in Wilbur heart. Us Mary One morning at the breakfast table, eight year Old Fern sees her father leave he house With an axe and asks her mother where he's going.Her mother delivers the shocking news that Mr.. Arable is going out to kill a runt that was born the night before. Fern chases her father down and persuades him to spare the runt, telling him that it is unjust to kill a piglet just because it is small. Moved by his daughter's plea, Mr.. Arable decides to give the runt to her to look after. Fern names the piglet Wilbur and looks after him like a baby, pushing him in her pram alongside her doll and feeding him with a bottle. At five weeks old Mr.. Arable insists that Wilbur is sold and he goes to live in theAckerman barn down the road. Wilbur initially struggles at the barn because he misses Fern so much but soon he becomes acquainted with new friends, the best of whom is a lady grey spider called Charlotte. Wilbur is fascinated by Charlotte, although to begin with he is slightly suspicious of the way she catches her food – he doesn't like the idea that she spins bugs in her web and sucks their blood. He soon realizes that Charlotte is everything but cruel and bloodthirsty and that her method of eating is entirely necessary for a spider.Wilbur is complete happy during the summer days – Fern comes to visit and is new friend tells him exciting stories and has the patience to try and coach him about how to spin a web (although she knows fine well he will never be able to) but one day he gets some terrible news that puts an end to his carefree attitude. The sheep tells Wilbur that Mr.. Ackerman is fattening him up for Christmas dinner and Wilbur is distraught – he is so happy on the farm and doesn't want to die. Charlotte calms him down and promises him that she won't let him be killed. She hasn't worked out how to save him yet, but she is determined that she will.One morning as Curvy pours Wilbur slops, e notices Charlotte twinkling spider web in the morning fog. The words ‘SOME PIG' have been weaved into the web. Luray is gob smacked and utters a prayer. He quickly tells Mr.. Ackerman who is equally amazed and soon the news spreads near and far. Worried that people may be getting bored of ‘SOME PIG', Charlotte asks Templeton the rat to aid her in finding more words to write in her web. Knowing that if Wilbur is killed he won't have access to his slops, Templeton reluctantly scavenges for newspaper clippings to help Charlotte.The next word she writes is ‘TERRIFIC' and after that, ‘RADIANT. ‘ Meanwhile, Mrs.. Arable is concerned that Fe rn is spending too much time down at the barn and becomes even more alarmed when her daughter tells her about Charlotte and the stories Charlotte tells. Mrs.. Arable decides to go and see Dry. Dorian to ask him what he makes Of Fern thinking the animals can talk and what he makes of the mysterious writing in the web. Dry Dorian is very calm and rational and says that the real miracle is not the writing in the web but the fact that a spider instinctively knows how to build a web without any tuition.He says that it is quite possible that animals can talk and that the season that adults cannot hear them might be because they talk too much to hear what is going on in nature. With the news of Seersucker's famous pig spreading, the Ackermann and Arable decide to take Wilbur to the County Fair. Charlotte agrees to go too although she is feeling tired and soon has to build a sac to hold her eggs. At the fair, Charlotte is disappointed to see that beside Wilbur pen is a much larger spring pi g called Uncle. Knowing he is fierce competition, Charlotte decides to spin another web and once again Templeton is sent off to find a word.The adults and children enjoy homeless at the fair and Avery and Fern are particularly excited that they are allowed to go off without their parents all afternoon. Fern spends all afternoon with Henry Fussy and they go on the Ferris wheel together. For months after, Fern will look back nostalgically at her time on the Ferris wheel with Henry. Before nightfall Charlotte weaves her web with the new word ‘HUMBLE' written into it and throughout the night she makes her egg sac. In the morning the Ackermann and Arable See the web but they also notice that uncle has a blue tag on his pen – he has already won first prize.Mr. Ackerman ignores the tag and tells everyone to buck up and give Wilbur a buttermilk bath. Everyone who comes to Wilbur pen has something good to say about him. Suddenly, over the loudspeaker a voice is heard asking Acke rman to bring his famous pig to the judges' booth for a special award. Wilbur is awarded a medal for being phenomenal and completely out of the ordinary and Mr.. Ackerman is given $25. Since the writing first appeared in the web, the miracle has been on everyone's mind. After the press photos and the commotion, Wilbur is returned to his pen. Wilbur notices thatCharlotte is quiet and looks unwell. She tells him that she is content now that she knows he is safe – she knows Mr.. Ackerman will never harm him now, but she tells Wilbur that she is failing and will be dead in a day or two. Panicked and distraught Wilbur races around the pen, begging Charlotte to come home with him, but she hasn't enough energy to move. Wilbur decides to take Charlotte egg sac and promises Templeton first choice of his slops if he retrieves the sac. As Wilbur carries the sac in his mouth and is led into the crate, he winks at Charlotte and she musters all the energy she can to wave dobby.